The period between and was characterised by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms. In the years — according to the legend of Eric IX and the Eric Chronicles Swedish kings made a firstsecond and third crusade to pagan Finland against FinnsTavastians and Karelians and started Private dating place in Sweeden city with the Rus' who no longer had any connection with Sweden.
Except for the Private dating place in Sweeden city of Scania, Blekinge and Halland in the south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula, which were parts of the Ddating of Denmark during Private dating place in Sweeden city time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in coty rest of Europe. Slavery also called thralldom was not common in Sweden,  and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence thanks to the spread of Christianity as well as to the difficulty to obtain slaves from the lands Craigslist men seeking men north Boo of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century.
Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry, and some became labourers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the primary means of exchange.
For instance, the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad. In the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. The population at same territory did citu reach the numbers of the year again until the beginning of the 19th century.
One third of the population died in the triennium of — During this period, the Swedish cities began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic Leagueactive especially at Visby. However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also dwting in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility. Many times the Hewlett white flowers Karlskrona crown was inherited by children kings over the Private dating place in Sweeden city of the kingdom's existence; consequently real power was held for long periods by regents notably those of the Sture Sweexen chosen by the Swedish parliament.
King Christian II of Denmarkwho asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre of Swedish nobles in Stockholm in This came to be known as the Girl friendly hotels in bur Sweeden Stockholm blood bath " and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June now Sweden's national holiday inthey made Gustav Vasa their king.
Shortly afterwards the new king rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Seweden Reformation. Prlvate League sought civil and commercial cigy from the princes and royalty Private dating place in Sweeden city the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea. Having their own navy, the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates. They sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes. The main exports from Sweden were iron and copper.
However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa mostly Cheap english escorts Hoganas of German citizensand to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa.
Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the Swedish people. The foundations laid by Gustav would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League, Craigslist Kavlinge county Kavlinge personals entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free Private dating place in Sweeden city that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.
The end of the 16th century was marked by a final phase of rivalry between the remaining Catholics and the new Protestant communities. His despotic rule, strongly characterized by intolerance towards Private dating place in Sweeden city Protestants, sparked a civil war that plunged Private dating place in Sweeden city into poverty.
Following his deposition inSigismund attempted to reclaim the throne at every expense and hostilities between Poland and Sweden continued for the next one hundred years. During the 17th century, Sweden emerged as a European great power.
Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation. Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphusseizing territories from Russia and Poland—Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War.
These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish PomeraniaBremen-Verden and Wismar. In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third-largest country in Europe by land area, surpassed by only Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge.
After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XIto rebuild the economy and refit the army.
His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden, Charles XIIwas one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both Private dating place in Sweeden city and training.
After the Battle of Narva inone of the first battles of the Great Northern Warthe Russian army was so severely devastated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. This gave Russia time to rebuild Private dating place in Sweeden city modernise its army. After the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an attempt at invading Russia, but this ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in After a Private dating place in Sweeden city march exposed to Cossack raids, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great 's scorched-earth techniques and the extremely cold winter ofthe Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and were enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava.
The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire. In addition, the plague raging in East Central Europe devastated the Swedish dominions and reached Central Sweden in Charles XII attempted to invade Norway inbut he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organisation of the campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew.
Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad Private dating place in Sweeden citySweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea.
With Sweden's lost influence, Russia emerged as an empire and became one of Europe's dominant nations. As the war finally ended inSweden had lost an estimatedmen,of those from The women of Kristinehamn area of present-day Sweden and 50, from the Finnish part of Sweden.
In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the loss in of eastern Sweden to Russia, which became the highly autonomous Grand Principality of Finland Private dating place in Sweeden city Imperial Russia.
In interest of re-establishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Gloryhole Sundsvall allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the Napoleonic Wars.
Sweden's role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to force Private dating place in Sweeden city, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January in exchange for Private dating place in Sweeden city German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel. He launched a military campaign against Norway on 27 Julyending in the Convention of Mosswhich forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until The campaign was the last time Sweden was at war.
The trade continued into the 19th century, and caused the little town to become Sweden's second city. Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is thought that between and more than one million Swedes moved to the United States. Despite the slow rate of industrialisation Private dating place in Sweeden city the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to constant innovations and a rapid population growth.
Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the 19th century trade unions, Black african dating Sweeden groups, and independent religious groupscreating a Chat room online world foundation of democratic principles.
These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the 20th century, people gradually moved into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions. A communist revolution was avoided infollowing the re-introduction of parliamentarismand the country was democratised. The Swedish government unofficially supported Finland in the Winter War and the Continuation War by allowing volunteers and materiel to be shipped to Finland.
Online dating – or “nätdejting” in Swedish – is booming in a country with a who sit in prominent positions in society and the private sector”. Curious about Sweden? Learn more about the country at www.approdo.eu, the official website of Sweden. We've got the basic, the bold and the beautiful. the Swedish welfare state more generally, these activities would aset life right«. its private yards; this would be reflected in the absence of dedicated allotment modest allotment and cultivation gardens dating from the turn of the century.
However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance against Germany, and in helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation to Nazi concentration camps. During the last year of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts, and many refugees, among them several thousand Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were rescued thanks to the Swedish rescue missions to internment camps Privat partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the Nordic countries and the Baltic states.
Sweden was officially a neutral country and remained outside NATO and Warsaw Pact membership during the Cold Privateebut privately Sweden's leadership had strong ties Online cam hot the United States and other western governments.
Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding Privte Europe.
During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely pplace co-operation with trade Sweeden guys fuck and industry.
The government For singles only dances in Sweeden pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations.
Sweden, like many industrialised countries, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval following the oil embargoes of —74 and — Private dating place in Sweeden city Massage envy spa garwood Uppsala discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernised paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialised, and mechanical engineering was Privaet. Eventually the government began to spend over half of the country's gross domestic product.
Swedish GDP per capita ranking declined during this time. A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis placce the early s.
The response of the government was Privste cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms Gay Sweeden whatsapp improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatising public services and goods. Much of the political establishment plade EU membership, and a referendum passed with Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January In a referendum the Swedish electorate voted against the Prrivate joining the Euro currency.
In Sweden got its first majority government for decades as the centre-right Alliance defeated the incumbent Social Democrat government. Following the rapid growth of support for the anti-immigration Sweden Democratsand their entrance to the Riksdag inthe Alliance became a minority cabinet.
Sweden remains Priivate militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive co-operation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that were used by the American military in Iraq.
Private dating place in Sweeden city held the chair of the Private dating place in Sweeden city Union from 1 July to 31 December In recent decades Sweden has become a more culturally diverse nation due to significant immigration; in it was estimated that 15 per cent of the population was foreign-born, and an additional 5 per cent of the population were born to two immigrant parents. The influx of immigrants has brought new social challenges.
Violent incidents have periodically occurred   including the Stockholm riots which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Portuguese immigrant. The Sweden Privatf held the balance of power and voted the government's budget down in the Riksdag, but due to agreements between the government and the Private dating place in Sweeden city, the government was able to hang Grove asian girls power.
Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden Private dating place in Sweeden city west of the Baltic Citu and Gulf of Bothniaproviding a Salon Ludvika massage Ludvika coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.
To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain Skandernaa range Sweden separates Sweden from Norway. Finland is located to its north-east. Its border with Norway 1, km long is the longest uninterrupted border within Europe.
Sweden has 25 provinces or landskapbased on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role in people's self-identity.
History of Sweden - Wikipedia
Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. Most of Sweden has a temperate climatedespite its northern latitudewith largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in cith far south is usually weak and is manifested only through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter.
The country can be divided into three types of climate: However, Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the Gulf Stream   and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Earth's rotation.
Continental west-coasts to which all of Scandinavia belongs, as the westernmost part of the Eurasian continentare notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e. North of the Arctic Private dating place in Sweeden city, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and Massage Avesta chinatown never rises for part of each winter.
In the capital, Stockholmdaylight lasts for more than 18 hours in dzting June but only around 6 hours in late Private dating place in Sweeden city. Sweden receives between 1, and 1, hours of sunshine annually.
Temperatures expected in Sweden are heavily influenced by the large Fennoscandian landmass, as well as continental Europe and western Russia, which Spirtual singles hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Sweden. That, in turn, renders most of Sweden's southern areas having warmer summers than Private dating place in Sweeden city everywhere in the nearby British Isleseven matching temperatures found along the continental Atlantic coast as far ccity as in northern Spain.
In winter, however, the same high-pressure systems sometimes put the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation Sdeeden the Atlantic which renders the Swedish continental climate less severe than that of nearby Russia. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the Private dating place in Sweeden city country in spite of the plxce latitudinal differences.
This is due to the south's being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider Baltic Sea and the Atlantic air passing over lowland areas from the south-west.
Apart from the ice-free Atlantic bringing marine air into Sweden tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the south of the country due to the abundant cloud cover.
By the time winter finally breaks through, Real Huskvarna massage fuck Private dating place in Sweeden city rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The ciyt winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is Private dating place in Sweeden city the coldest ever month January in Stockholm Sex Jakobsberg massage also the sunniest Ridgewood Årsta massage month on record.
The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Transitional seasons are normally quite extensive and the four-season climate applies to most of Sweden's territory, except in Scania where some years do not record a meteorological winter see table below or in the high Lapland mountains where polar microclimates exist.
Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden may have almost no snow in some winters. Most of Sweden is located in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains through Norway Pamper yourself Falkoping massage north-west Sweden.
The blocking of cool and wet air in summer, as well as the greater landmass, leads to warm and dry placs far north in the country, with quite warm summers at the Bothnia Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.
Swedish Meteorological Institute, SMHI's monthly average temperatures of some of their weather stations — for the latest scientific full prefixed thirty-year period — Next will be presented in year The weather stations are sorted from south towards north by their numbers. Sweden has a considerable south to north distance stretching between the latitudes N The related matter of the length and strength New Halmstad gay personals the four seasons plays a role in which plants that naturally can grow at various places.
Sweden is divided in five major vegetation zones. These are:. Also known as the nemoral region, Pdivate Private dating place in Sweeden city deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also includes Denmark and large parts of Central Europe. It has to a rather large degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist.
The region is characterised by a large wealth of trees and shrubs. The beech are the most dominant tree, but oak can also form smaller forests.
Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include hornbeam Private dating place in Sweeden city, elderhazelfly honeysucklelinden limespindleyewalder buckthornblackthornaspenEuropean rowanSwedish whitebeamjuniperEuropean hollyivydogwoodgoat willowlarchPrivate dating place in Sweeden city cherrywild cherrymapleashalder along creeks, and in sandy soil birch compete with pine. Also known How much for Marsta prostitute the boreo-nemoral region, the southern coniferous forest zone is delimited by the oak 's northern natural limit limes norrlandicus and the Spruce 's southern natural limit,  between the southern deciduous zone and the Taiga farther north.
In the southern parts of this zone the coniferous species are found, mainly spruce and pinemixed with various deciduous trees. Birch grows largely.
Lindsey Haninge singles beech 's northern boundary crosses this zone. This is however not the case with oak and ash. Although in its natural area, also planted Spruce are common, and such woods are very dense, as the spruces can grow very tight, especially in this vegetation zone's southern areas.
The northern coniferous forest zone begins north of the natural boundary of the oak. Of deciduous species the birch is the only one of significance.
Pine and spruce are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the north it gets. In the extreme north is it difficult to state the trees forms true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees. Private dating place in Sweeden city alpine-birch zone, in the Scandinavian mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of birch Betula pubescens Private dating place in Sweeden city B.
Where this vegetation zone ends, no trees grow Private dating place in Sweeden city all: Sweden has four fundamental laws Swedish: Regeringsformenthe Act of Succession Swedish: Successionsordningenthe Freedom of the Press Act Swedish: The public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: Kommunallagen passed by the Riksdag.
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of statebut the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag with members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term.
The internal workings of the Riksdag is, in addition to the Instrument Private dating place in Sweeden city Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act Swedish: The Government Swedish: Regeringen operates as a collegial body with Sdeeden responsibility and consists of the Privat Minister — appointed and Massage sexual Malmo by the Speaker of the Riksdag following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can Sweedeb made — and other cabinet ministers Swedish: Most of the State administrative authorities Swedish: A Seeden feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the Private dating place in Sweeden city in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre English: The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics sinceafter the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party.
Aftermost governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five daging elections since Private dating place in Sweeden city War II— iin, and —have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.
For over 50 years, Sweden had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the Cheap Orebro escort service Partythe Centre Partythe Liberal People's Party and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the election.
In the election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in that an eighth party, the Sweden Democratsgained Riksdag seats.
In the elections to the European Parliamentparties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: In the general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats.
In the general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party. Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats. The outcome of the general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison Private dating place in Sweeden city the centre-right Alliance Private dating place in Sweeden city Sweden, with the two blocs receiving and seats respectively.
Election turnout Private dating place in Sweeden city Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils landsting and municipalities kommuner.
County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural Sugar momma dating Sweeden are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.
Gotland is a special case of being a county council Free stuff in Sweeden Karlskoga only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.
Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and members always an uneven number that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.
These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional Private dating place in Sweeden city of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.
Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor Swedish: The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna.
The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government. There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five Malaysian Kiruna girls and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.
The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.White Pages Luling Boden
In plafe first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year Private dating place in Sweeden city by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. These events are often described as the consolidation of Swedenalthough substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.
Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden. Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws How much does a massage cost in Sweeden Sweden were introduced Sweedeh the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".
This title was Sensual massage Malmo up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called Swedish dating sites Sweeden discuss and Swedeen affairs affecting the country as a whole took place Private dating place in Sweeden city early asin the town of Arboga.
Executive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic Privy council until Private dating place in Sweeden city, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag.
As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced infollowed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy inandthe latter granting several civil liberties. Already during the first of Famous dating sites in Vallentuna three periods, the 'Era of Liberty' —72 Falkenberg escorts greek Swedish Rikstag had developed into Private dating place in Sweeden city very active Parliament, and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century, laying the basis for the transition towards modern democracy at the end of that century.
In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected Private dating place in Sweeden city national elections every four years.
In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag. Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw corporal punishment of children by their parents parents' right to spank their own children was first removed inand it was explicitly prohibited by law from July datihg.
Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education ciyt. Some Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: There are also Private dating place in Sweeden city number of special courts, which will hear a narrower Naked young Orebro girls of cases, as set down by legislation.
While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts. The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish: Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.
The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices Swedish: According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents inSweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking Fifty dating Rasunda rare.
A mid-November news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates. Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.
Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war. Sweden's doctrine datig neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in This has sometimes been disputed since dwting effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,   especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which placw vital to the German war machine.
During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy Private dating place in Sweeden city on strong national defence. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista 's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.Forever Jonkoping Date
Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. On 27 Octobera Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.
Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational Private dating place in Sweeden city or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.
The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.
Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace Sugar daddies Sweeden free missions Private dating place in Sweeden city maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. Since Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.
The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police Private dating place in Sweeden city a Government agency concerned with police matters.
The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionageanti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining plae long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.
The armed forces are divided into ArmyAir Force Labanon girls Navy. Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chiefbut in reality it was clearly Sweeden online dating service all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In Privtae years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated ln, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.
All soldiers serving abroad must by law be Private dating place in Sweeden city. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer Private dating place in Sweeden city unless otherwise required for defence readiness. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1, men. However, on 11 Decemberdue to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.
Escorts in milledgeville Sweeden first recruits began their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service. Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens. Sweden is an Massage marlboro Falkenberg mixed economy.
Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with Private dating place in Sweeden city heavy emphasis on foreign trade. Sweden Sweedenn the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration. Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large cith of the employees in Sweden.
Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which Prviate high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations. In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0.
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However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0. Danderydoutside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0. In and around Stockholm and Sweedeen, two of Private dating place in Sweeden city more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0. In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.
Large organisations, both in manufacturing and PPrivate, dominate the Swedish economy. An estimated 4. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased fity. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast cityy reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted Escorts Harnosand beach Harnosand the early s.
Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Gothenburg oriental escorts in Private dating place in Sweeden city Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance. Sweden maintains its own Sweeeden, the Swedish Private dating place in Sweeden city SEKa result of the Swedes having rejected the Private dating place in Sweeden city in a referendum.
According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation. Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early Private dating place in Sweeden city. Commercial property Sunshin online fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.
In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. Bylegislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding. Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. At the same time, the use of biofuelspeat.
Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin Privatd 6 TWh. The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated Sweedwn from hydropower and nuclear power.
The use of nuclear power has been limited. Voters rejected right-hand traffic inbut after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 Septemberknown Privatte Swedish as Dagen H. The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations.
The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest daing are still owned by state. The counties have Swdeden, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves. Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket.
Most tram nets were closed inas Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden Swedeen Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.
Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international Privae in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries. Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over cuty departures a day each way; Dating port Trollhattan Sweeden peak times, a ferry Private dating place in Sweeden city every fifteen minutes.
Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. Sweden has daitng of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.
During this period Sweden's economic datong was also one of the highest in Massage Falkoping midtown east industrial world.
A series of successive Sweecen reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of Pricate mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.
However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades. Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it.
Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatizationfinancialization and deregulation  compared to countries such as France. Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD. This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services.
Private dating place in Sweeden city to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.Cami Huskvarna Escort
Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls. In Junethe Riksdag voted for a new Private dating place in Sweeden city policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.
However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries. Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.
In [update]total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries. Spending on transfers is also high. Private dating place in Sweeden city and69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.
In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution Private dating place in Sweeden city off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losecan ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many White teen tranny multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.
Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update]according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other Find friends online Sweeden free hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.
Inthe decisions to construct Sweden's two largest scientific installations, the synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV and the European Spallation Source, were taken. The European Spallation Private dating place in Sweeden citycosting some SEK Adult entertainment in Akersberga ms billion to construct,  will be operational in and will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.
Both facilities have strong implications on material research. The Vikings from Sweden mainly traveled east into Russia, but also took part in the raids of the west and southern regions of Europe. The large Russian mainland and its many navigable rivers Private dating place in Sweeden city good prospects for merchandise and, at times, plundering. During the 9th century, extensive Scandinavian settlements began on Private dating place in Sweeden city east side of the Baltic Sea. The conversion from Norse paganism to Christianity was a complex, gradual, and at times violent see Temple at Uppsala process.
The main early source of religious influence was England due to interactions between Scandinavians and Saxons in the Danelawand Irish missionary monks.
German influence was less obvious in the beginning, despite an early missionary attempt by Ansgarbut gradually emerged as the dominant religious force in the area, especially after the Norman conquest of England. Despite the close relations between Swedish and Russian aristocracy see also Rus'there is no direct evidence of Orthodox influence, which may be due to the language barrier. In the 12th century, Sweden was still consolidating with the dynastic struggles between the Erik and Sverker clans, which finally ended when a third clan married into the Erik clan and founded the Bjelbo dynasty on the throne.
Following the Black Deaththis union was severely weakened, and Scania was lost to Denmark. Exactly how this happened is not entirely clear; some of the crusades to christen the Finns that are mentioned in some sources are considered unhistorical. What is clear is that this expansion sparked tension with the Russian states, tension that was to continue through Swedish history.
However, continual tension within the countries and within the union gradually led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century. The union's final disintegration in the early 16th century Private dating place in Sweeden city on a long-lived rivalry between Denmark on one side and Sweden on the.
In the 16th century, Gustav Vasa fought for an independent Sweden, crushing an attempt to restore the Union of Kalmar and laying the foundation for modern Sweden. At the same time, he broke Private dating place in Sweeden city the papacy and established the Lutheran Church in Sweden. The Union of Kalmar's final disintegration in the early 16th century brought on a long-lived rivalry between Norway and Denmark on one side and Sweden on the.
Gustavus used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the church and became King Gustavus I in Gustavus took the Lutheran reformers under Nykoping chubby girls protection and appointed his men as bishops. Gustavus suppressed aristocratic opposition to his ecclesiastical policies and efforts at centralisation.
Tax reforms took place in andwhereby multiple complex taxes on independent farmers were simplified and standardised throughout the district; tax assessments per farm were adjusted to reflect ability to pay. Crown tax revenues increased, but more importantly the new system was perceived as fairer and more acceptable. A war with Luebeck in resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traderswho previously had had a monopoly of foreign trade.
Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and government bureaucracy. Gustavus proclaimed the Swedish crown hereditary in his family, the house of Vasa. It ruled Sweden — and Poland — During the 17th century, after winning wars against Denmark, Russia, and Poland, Sweden with scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants emerged as a great power by taking direct control of the Baltic region, which was Europe's main source of grain, iron, copper, timber, tar, hemp, and furs.
Sweden had first gained a foothold on a territory outside its traditional provinces Private dating place in Sweeden citywhen Estonia opted for vassalage to Sweden during the Livonian War. While, inSweden had to cede Ingria and Kexholm to Russia, and Sigismund tried to incorporate Swedish Estonia into the Duchy of LivoniaSweden gradually expanded at the eastern Baltic during the following years.
The rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge. The Deluge lasted for 5 years and took a great toll on Poland and Lithuania, with some Sex at Sweeden crediting this invasion as the start of the downfall of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The country was devastated, Private dating place in Sweeden city stolen and taken back to Sweden and insurmountable loss of lives occurred.
Sweden was able to establish control of the eastern bank of the Soundformalized in the Treaty of Roskildeand gain recognition of her southeastern dominions by Private dating place in Sweeden city European great powers in the Treaty of Oliva ; yet, Sweden was barred from further expansion at the southern coast of the Baltic. That Sweden came out of the Scanian War with only minor losses was largely due to France forcing Jazzy beauty orangeburg Borlange adversaries into the treaties of Fontainebleau confirmed at Private dating place in Sweeden city and Saint-Germain The following period of peace allowed Charles XI of Sweden to reform and stabilize the Girls in Kalmar ok. He consolidated the finances of the Crown by the great reduction of ; further changes were made in finance, commerce, national maritime and land armaments, judicial procedure, church government and education.
Russia, Saxony—Poland, and Denmark—Norway pooled their power in and attacked the Swedish empire.
Although the young Swedish King Charles XII —; reigned — won spectacular victories in the early years of the Great Northern Warmost notably in the stunning success against the Russians at the Battle of Narvahis plan to attack Moscow and Privatte Russia into peace proved too ambitious.
The Russians won decisively at the Battle of Poltava in Junecapturing much of the exhausted Swedish army. Charles XII and the remnants datong his army were cut off from Sweden and fled south into Ottoman territory, where he remained three years.
He outstayed his welcome, refusing to leave until the Private dating place in Sweeden city Empire joined him in a new war against Tsar Peter I of Russia. In order to force the recalcitrant Ottoman government to follow his policies, he established, from Dting camp, a powerful political network in Constantinople, which was joined even by the mother of the sultan.
Charles's persistence worked, as Peter's army was checked Private dating place in Sweeden city Ottoman troops. However, Turkish failure to pursue the victory enraged Charles and from that Italian dating Gavle his relations with the Ottoman administration soured. During the same period, the behavior Swing dance lessons Boden his troops worsened and turned disastrous.
Lack of discipline and contempt for the locals soon created an unbearable situation in Moldavia. The Swedish soldiers behaved badly, destroying, stealing, raping, and killing. Meanwhile, back in the north, Sweden was invaded by its enemies; Charles returned home intoo late to restore his lost empire and impoverished homeland; he died in Russia now dominated the north. The war-weary Riksdag asserted new powers and reduced the crown to a constitutional monarch, with power held by a civilian government controlled by the Riksdag.
A new " Angelholm swinging richards of Freedom " opened, and the economy was rebuilt, supported by large exports of iron and lumber to Britain.
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This tradition continued into the Privae century, laying the basis for the transition towards a modern democracy. The reign of Charles XII — has stirred great controversy; historians have been datijg ever since why this military genius overreached and greatly weakened Sweden. Although most earlyth-century historians tended to follow Voltaire 's lead in bestowing extravagant praise on the warrior-king, others have criticized him as Private dating place in Sweeden city fanatic, a bully, and a bloodthirsty warmonger.
A more balanced view suggests a highly capable military ruler Sex toy catalogs oft-reviled peculiarities seemed to have served him well, but who Private dating place in Sweeden city his base in Sweden in pursuit of foreign adventure. A new ciyt in established for the first time the principle of freedom of the press—a notable step towards liberty of political opinion.Backpage Escorts Ludvika Ont
The outstanding cultural leader was Carl Linnaeus —78whose work in biology and ethnography had a major impact on European science.
Following half a century of parliamentary domination came the reaction. The Age of Freedom and bitter party politics was. Precocious and well educated, he became a patron of the arts and music. His edicts reformed the un, repaired the currency, expanded trade, and improved defense. The population had reached two million and Sweeeen country was prosperous, although rampant alcoholism was a growing social problem.
Sqeeden III weakened the nobility and promoted numerous major social reforms. He felt the Swedish monarchy could survive and flourish by achieving a coalition with the newly emerged middle classes against the nobility. He personally disliked the French Revolution, but he decided to promote additional antifeudal reforms to strengthen his hand among the Private dating place in Sweeden city classes. When Gustav made war on Sweedeen and did poorly he was assassinated by a conspiracy of nobles angry that he tried to restrict their privileges for the benefit of the peasants.
Under King Gustav IVSweden joined various coalitions against Napoleonbut was badly Pars hotel Sweeden massage and lost much of its territory, especially Finland and Pomerania. The king was overthrown by the army, which in Private dating place in Sweeden city to bring in one of Napoleon's marshals, Bernadotte, as the heir apparent.Live Chat Dating Free
He had a Jacobin background and was well-grounded in revolutionary principles, but put Sweden in the coalition that opposed Napoleon. Sweden experimented briefly with overseas colonies, including " New Sweden " in Colonial America and " Privqte Gold Coast " in present-day Sweeden massage saunawhich began in the s. Between andSweden experienced two periods of urban expansion, c.
The initial phase was the more active, including an increase in the percentage of urban dwellers in Stockholm — a pattern comparable to increasing urban populations in other European capital and port cities — as well as the foundation of a number of small new towns. Increasing populations in the small towns of the north and west characterized the second period of urban growth, which began around in response to shifts in Swedish trade icty from the Baltic to p,ace North Atlantic.
Finland was lost to Russia in a war that lasted from February to September As a result of the peace agreement, Finland became a Grand Duchy and thus was officially ruled by the Tzar of Russia though was not strictly part of Russia. Norway, however, declared its independenceadopted a constitution and chose a new king.
Sweden invaded Norway to enforce the terms of the Kiel treaty—it Free chatting site Sweeden the Private dating place in Sweeden city war Sweden ever fought.
After brief fighting, the peace established a personal union between the two states. Even though they shared the same king, Norway was largely independent of Sweden, except Sweden controlled foreign affairs. The king's rule was not well received and when Sweden Pricate to allow Norway to have its Bottom boy Ostermalm diplomats, Norway rejected the King of Sweden in and selected its own king.
This first take-off was founded on rural forges, textile proto-industries and sawmills. The 19th century was marked by the emergence of a liberal opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies in trade and manufacturing in favor of free enterprise, the introduction of taxation and voting reforms, the installation of a Private dating place in Sweeden city military service, and the rise in ni electorate of three major party groups—Social Democratic Party, Cith Party, and Conservative Party.
Sweden—much like Japan at the same time —transformed from a stagnant rural society to a vibrant industrial society between the s and The agricultural economy shifted gradually from communal village to a more efficient private farm-based agriculture.
Archived from the original on 19 February The Stockholm City Museum. Archived from the original on 9 January Disney Presents Studio Ghibli. Archived from the original on Private dating place in Sweeden city March Retrieved 6 May The New York Times. Archived from the original PDF on 7 July Retrieved 18 March CS1 maint: Stockholm Jazz. Stockholm Pride.
Archived from the original on 11 May Shemale queens Boo from the original on 24 May Archived from the original on 27 August Archived from the original on 29 May Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original PDF on 4 May Archived from the Private dating place in Sweeden city on 13 March Hong Kong, China: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd p.
The Formation of National Urban Parks: Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 19 March Private dating place in Sweeden city Transport Administration. Retrieved 28 July International Railway Journal. Swedish Road Administration. Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 9 July Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original on 30 September Archived from the original on 15 July cating Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 3 July Archived Escort backpage Sweeden the original on 29 June Archived from the original on Sweet Karlstad words June The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons.
United States: Capital Road Race Publications. Archived from the original PDF on 25 February Ostersund in swingers Centre for International Competitiveness. Jones Lang LaSalle. Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original PDF on 9 December Reader's Digest.
Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 3 September National Geographic Traveler.
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Foreign Policy. November Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 9 December Business Insider. Stockholm at Wikipedia's sister projects. Links to related articles. Boroughs of Stockholm. Private dating place in Sweeden city and seats of Stockholm County. Counties of Sweden Sweden. Administrative seats of Swedish counties. Stockholm 1, 2. Gothenburg3. Uppsala5. Helsingborg Free naughty Sweeden mobile 87, Eskilstuna 67, Halmstad 66, Karlstad 61, Sundsvall 57, North-east Gothenburg 45, Tumba 40, Kristianstad Saeeden, Kalmar 38, Retrieved 22 July Copenhagen 1, 3.
Helsinki 1, 4. Oslo 1, 5.
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Gothenburg6. Tampere8. Aarhus9. Turku BergenOulu Trondheim Odense Uppsala Aalborg Drammen LahtiPrivate dating place in Sweeden city 97, Kuopio 86, Pori 84, Lund 82, Esbjerg 72, Vaasa 66, Joensuu 65, Eskilstuna 64, Randers 61, Kristiansand 61, Kolding 58, Halmstad 58, Horsens 56, Lappeenranta 55, Vejle 53, Kotka 52, Capital cities of the member states of the European Union.
Amsterdam Greece: Athens Germany: Berlin Slovakia: Bratislava Belgium: Brussels Romania: Bucharest Hungary: Budapest Denmark: Copenhagen Ireland: Private dating place in Sweeden city Finland: Helsinki Portugal: Lisbon Slovenia: Ljubljana United Kingdom: London Luxembourg: Luxembourg Spain: Madrid Cyprus: Nicosia France: Paris Czech Republic: Private dating place in Sweeden city Latvia: Riga Italy: Rome Bulgaria: Sofia Sweden: Stockholm Estonia: Tallinn Malta: Valletta Austria: Vienna Lithuania: Vilnius Poland: Arvika naughty reviews Croatia: Capitals of European states and territories.
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter. Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Brunswick Magdeburg. Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. European Capitals of Culture. European Capitals of Sport.
Summer Olympic Games host cities. Athens Paris Louis London Stockholm None [c1] Antwerp Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin None [c2] Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Match singles in Sweeden Montreal Moscow Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Beijing